Exercise Physiology Evidence

ATS/ACCP Statement on Cardiopulmonary Exercise Testing.
Am J Respir Crit Care Med 167:211-277, 2003.


Beaver WL, Wasserman K, Whipp BJ.
A new method for detecting the anaerobic threshold by gas exchange.
J Appl Physiol 1986; 60: 2020-2027.


Beaver WL, Wasserman K, Whipp BJ.
Bicarbonate buffering of lactic acid generated during exercise.
J Appl Physiol 1986; 60: 472-478.


Cooper CB,. Storer TW.
Exercise Testing and Interpretation: A Practical Approach
Cambridge University Press, 2001.


Jones NL.
Exercise testing in pulmonary evaluation: Rationale, methods, and the normal respiratory response to exercise.
New Engl J Med 293:541-544, 1975.


Ozcelik O, Ward SA, Whipp BJ.
Effect of altered body CO2 stores on pulmonary gas exchange dynamics during incremental exercise in humans.
Exp Physiol 1999; 84: 999-1011.


Reinhard U, Muller PH, Schmulling RM
Determination of anaerobic threshold by the ventilation equivalent in normal individuals.
Respiration 1979; 38: 36-42.


Ward SA.
Discriminating features of responses in cardiopulmonary exercise testing
European Respiratory Monograph 40:36-68, 2007.


Wasserman K, Hansen JE, Sue DY, Stringer WW, Sietsema KE, Sun XG, Whipp BJ.
Principles of Exercise Testing and Interpretation, 5th edition.
Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Philadelphia, 2011.


Wasserman K, Whipp BJ.
Exercise physiology in health and disease (State of the Art).
Am Rev Respir Dis 112: 219-249, 1975.

Wasserman K, Whipp BJ, Koyal SN, Beaver WL.
The anaerobic threshold and respiratory gas exchange during exercise.
J Appl Physiol 1973; 35: 236-242.


Whipp BJ.
The bioenergetic and gas-exchange basis of exercise testing.
Clin Chest Med 15: 173-192, 1994.


Whipp BJ.
Physiological mechanisms dissociating pulmonary CO2 and O2 exchange dynamics during exercise in humans
Exp Physiol 2007; 92: 347-355.


Whipp BJ, Wagner PD, Agusti A.
Determinants of the physiological systems responses to muscular exercise in healthy subjects. In: Clinical Exercise Testing (Eds: Palange P & Ward SA),
European Respiratory Monograph 40, pp. 1-35, 2007.


Whipp BJ, Ward SA, Wasserman K.
Respiratory markers of the anaerobic threshold.
Adv Cardiol 1986; 35: 47 64.



Agostoni, P., M. Bianchi, A. Moraschi, P. Palermo, G. Cattadori, R. La Gioia, M. Bussotti and K. Wasserman (2005).
Work-rate affects cardiopulmonary exercise test results in heart failure.
European Journal of Heart Failure 7(4): 498-504.

Beaver, W. L., N. Lamarra and K. Wasserman (1981).
Breath-by-breath measurement of true alveolar gas exchange.
Journal of applied physiology: respiratory, environmental and exercise physiology 51(6): 1662-1675.

Casaburi, R., A. Patessio, F. Ioli, S. Zanaboni, C. Donner and K. Wasserman (1991).
Reductions in exercise lactic acidosis and ventilation as a result of exercise training in patients with obstructive lung disease.
Am Rev Respir Dis 143(1): 9-18.

Cooper, C. B., W. L. Beaver, D. M. Cooper and K. Wasserman (1992).
Factors affecting the components of the alveolar CO2 output-O2 uptake relationship during incremental exercise in man.
Exp Physiol 77(1): 51-64.

Davis, J., M. Frank, B. Whipp and K. Wasserman (1979).
Anaerobic threshold alterations caused by endurance training in middle-aged men.
J Appl Physiol 46(6): 1039-1046.

Hansen, J., D. Sue and K. Wasserman (1984).
Predicted values for clinical exercise testing.
Am Rev Respir Dis 129(2 Pt 2): S49-55.

Patessio, A., R. Casaburi, M. Carone, L. Appendini, C. Donner and K. Wasserman (1993).
Comparison of gas exchange, lactate, and lactic acidosis thresholds in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Am Rev Respir Dis 148(3): 622-626.

Sue, D. Y., K. Wasserman, R. B. Moricca and R. Casaburi (1988).
Metabolic acidosis during exercise in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Use of the V-slope method for anaerobic threshold determination.
Chest 94(5): 931-938.

Wasserman, K. (1984).
The anaerobic threshold measurement in exercise testing.
Clin Chest Med 5(1): 77-88.

Wasserman, K. (1986).
The anaerobic threshold: definition, physiological significance and identification.
Adv Cardiol 35: 1-23.

Wasserman, K., W. L. Beaver and B. J. Whipp (1990).
Gas exchange theory and the lactic acidosis (anaerobic) threshold.
Circulation 81(1 Suppl): II14-30.

Whipp, B., J. Davis, F. Torres and K. Wasserman (1981).
A test to determine parameters of aerobic function during exercise.
J Appl Physiol 50(1): 217-221.